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2022考研心思学导论梳理:念头、须要与意志

更新时候:2020-11-21 10:46:08 | 来历:中公考研   

XINSIXUEZHUANYECIKESHIREMENZHUANYEZHIYI,MEIYINIANCHENGSHIYOULIANGDUOXIANSHENGTINGZHIBAOKAO。WEILEZANZHUBAOKAOXINSIXUEZHUANYEDEKAOSHENGLINGHUIXINSIXUEKAOYANCHANGSHIDIAN,ZHONGGONGKAOYANXIAOBIANQINGSUAN“2022KAOYANXINSIXUEDAOLUNSHULI:NIANTOU、XUYAOYUYIZHI”XIANGGANNEIRONG,DANYUANNENGGOUJIBEIZHAN2022KAOYANKAOSHENGGONGYINGCANKAO。

念头、须要与意志

(YI)NIANTOUGAISHU

1.NIANTOUDEJIYI

NIANTOU:SHIYOUYIZHONGFANGZHENHUODONGXISUOZHIDIAN、JIQIHEBAOCHIDEGEBIEGOUDANGDENEIHANXINSIJINCHENGHUOWAIBUNENGYUAN。NIANTOUSHIYIZHONGWAIBUXINSIJINCHENG,ERBUSHIXINSIGOUDANGDECHENGGUO。

2.NIANTOUDEGONGNENG

(1)JIHUOGONGNENG(2)ZHIXIANGGONGNENG(3)BAOCHIHEDIAOJIEGONGNENG

3.XINSINIANTOUYUSHEHUINIANTOU

ANZHAONIANTOUDEXINGZI,RENMENDENIANTOUKEFENWEIXINGANXINGNIANTOUYUSHEHUIXINGNIANTOU

(1)XINGANXINGNIANTOU:YECHENGQULI,TAYIWUJITIBENSHENDESHENGWUXUEXUYAOWEIGENBEN。XINGANXINGNIANTOUBIANCERENMENQUGOUDANG,CONGERZHIZUMOUZHONGSHENGWUXUEXUYAO。RU:JIE(JIEZHONGSHU、YANSHIZHONGSHU)KE、QUEYANG、TONGKUBEISHANG、MUXING、XINGYU、JIUQIN、FENMIDENG。

(2)SHEHUIXINGNIANTOU:YIRENDESHEHUIWENMINGXUYAOWEIGENBEN。

aLEQU:RENMENTANTAOMOUZHONGSHIWUHUOCHUZHIMOUZHONGGOUDANGDEXINSIPIANXIANG,TAYISHUXIHUOMOSUOWAIJIEDEXUYAOWEIGENBEN;b CHENGJIUNIANTOU:RENMENDANYUANCHUZHIDUITAYOUSHOUYAOYISIDE、YOUJIANKUDE、TIAOXINXINGDEGOUDANG,QUDEYOULIANGCHENGGUOHECHENGJIU,BINGNENGKUAYUEBIEREN;

c QUANLINIANTOU:RENMENJUBEIDEMOUZHONGZHIPEIHEYINGXIANGBIERENHESIZHOUQINGKUANGDENEIHANQULI;

d LAIWANGNIANTOU:QINGYUANGUISHUJITI,XIHAOYURENLAIWANG,DANYUANQUDEGUANHUAI、YOUQING、CHENGCHI、XIEZUOYUZANMEI。

※4.NIANTOUYUXINGDONGXIAOLIDEGANXI

(1)NIANTOUYUXINGDONGDEGANXI:NIANTOUHEXINGDONGDEGANXIFEICHANGPANGZA,JINXIUNIANTOUCHABIE,JINXIUDECHENGGUOYECHABIE。TONGYIZHONGNIANTOUYEHUIFASHENGCHABIEDEXINGDONG。ZAIYIXIAOWOSHENSHANGDENIANTOUYEDUOZHONGDUOYANG(ZHUDAONIANTOU、LISHUNIANTOU)。NIANTOUYUCHENGGUOCHABIEYIDEQINGKUANGYESHIYOUFASHENG。SHIYIZHIYAOLINGHUIYIXIAOWODENIANTOU,NENGLIBINIJINGQUEDIJIELUQIXINGDONG,BINGDUIXINGDONGZUOCHUBINIJINGQUEDIYUJIEZHI。

(2)NIANTOUYUSHIMINGXIAOLI:SHOUYAOBIAOCIKENIANTOUDEQIANGDUYUSHIMINGXIAOLIDEGANXISHANG。

YEJISI-DUODESENDINGLV,SHIBIAOXIANNIANTOUYUSHIMINGXIAOLIDEGANXI。NIANTOUQIANGDUYUSHIMINGXIAOLIZHIJIANDEGANXIBUSHIYIZHONGXIANXINGGANXI,ERSHIDAOUXINGQUXIAN。ZHONGDENGQIANGDUDENIANTOUYOUYIYUSHIMINGDEWANCHENG。a1,GEZHONGGOUDANGDOUCUNZAIYIGEJIADENIANTOUCHENGDU。 a2,NIANTOUDEJIACHENGDUSUISHIMINGXINGZIDECHABIEERCHABIE。a3,ZAINANDUJIAODADESHIMINGZHONG,JIAODIDENIANTOUCHENGDUYOUYIYUSHIMINGDEWANCHENG。

※5.NIANTOUDESHIJI(ZHEIGELIANXIJIAODAOXINSIXUECHUTI)

NIANTOUDESHIJISHOUYAOYOU:TIANXINGLUN、QULILUN、JIAOXINGLUN、YOUYINLUN、RENZHILUN。

1,NIANTOUDETIANXINGSHIJI。 YIDUZAINIANTOUXINSIXUEFANCHOUZHANYOUTONGZHIWEIZHI,YIWEI:RENLEIDEXINGDONGSHIZAITUIHUAJINCHENGZHONGZUCHENGDE,YOUYICHUANLAOGUSHANGQU,BUXUEERHUIDE、LAOGUDEXINGDONGXINGSHI。 CUOWUMIUWU:BUNENGQIEDANGDIJIELUXINGDONGDEYUANYOU,LUNHUILUNZHENG。

2,NIANTOUDEQULISHIJI。YIWEI:GEBIEYINWEIXINSIXUYAOERFASHENGYIZHONGYANZHONGZHUANGKUANG,JIQIHUOQUDONGGEBIEDEXINGDONGYIZHIZUXUYAO,XIAOMIYANZHONG,CONGERGUIFUJITIJUNHENGZHUANGKUANG。GEBIEYAOBAOCUNJIUYOUXUYAO。XUYAOFASHENGQULI。QULISHIYIZHONGNIANTOUBUJU,TAGONGYINGJITIDEQILIHUONENGLIANG,SHIXUYAOQUDEZHIZU,JINERXUEJIANQULI。

CUOWUMIUWU:BUNENGQUANSHIQULIZENGTIANDEXINGDONG,RUJUESHIKANGYI,DIAOJINGCIGU。

3,NIANTOUDEJIAOXINGSHIJI。YIWEI:RENMENLAOSHIBEIJIAOXING,BINGBAOCHIZHEXINSIJIHUODEYIZHONGJIACHENGDU,BUSHITAIGAOYEBUSHITAIDI。TATICHULESANGEDAOLI:

①RENMENPIANHAOJIADEJIAOXINGCHENGDU,MEIXIAOWODOUYOUBENSHENJIADEJIAOXINGCHENGDU;②JIANHUADAOLI,JIFANFUTINGZHIANWEINENGSHIJIAOXINGCHENGDUXIAJIANG;③XIAOWOJINGLIDUIPIANHAOYOUYINGXIANG,FUYOUJINGLIDEGEBIEPIANHAOGUOPANGZADEANWEI

4,NIANTOUDEYOUYINSHIJI。YIWEI:ZHENDUIQULISHIJIDEQUEDIAN(QULISHIJIJINJINKUADAGEBIEDEGOUDANGLAIZINEIHANDENENGYUAN,TASHUHULENEIHANQINGKUANGZAIJIQIXINGDONGSHANGDEGANHUA),TICHULEYOUYINSHIJI。YOUYINSHIGEBIEXINGDONGDEYIZHONGNENGYUAN,TACUSHIGEBIEQUZHUIQIUFANGZHEN。YOUYINYUQULISHIBUKEFENGEDE,YOUYINSHIYOUNEIHANFANGZHENSUOJIQI,ZHIYAODANGTABIANCHENGGEBIENEIHANDEXUYAOSHI,NENGLIBIANCEGEBIEDEXINGDONG,BINGYOUNAIJIUDEBIANCELI。

5,NIANTOUDERENZHISHIJI。 GUDAIRENZHISHIJIYIWEI:RENZHIJUBEINIANTOUGONGNENG。

NIANTOUDERENZHISHIJISHOUYAOYOU:DENGHOUDAIJIASHIJI、NIANTOUDEGUIYINSHIJI、ZIWOGONGNENGLUN、CHENGJIUFANGZHENLUN。

1,DENGHOUDAIJIASHIJI。BADAODAFANGZHENDEDENGHOUZUOWEIXINGDONGDEJUEYISHENFEN。DENGHOUZANZHUGEBIEQUDEFANGZHEN。

2,NIANTOUGUIYINSHIJI。NIANTOUSHISIWEIDEGONGNENG,CAIYONGYINGUOGANXITUILUNDETILICONGRENMENXINGDONGZHONGZHUIQIUXINGDONGNEIHANDENENGYUANSHENFEN。

RENMENBAXINGDONGDEYUANYOUGUINAWEIWAIBUYUANYOUHEWAIBUYUANYOU,TONGSHIBAXINGDONGYUANYOUFENWEIBUBIANHEBUBUBIANDE。NEIKONGXINGDERENYIWEICHENGBAISHIYOUBENSHENDEYUANYOUXINGCHENGDE,ERWAIKONGXINGDERENZEYIWEICHENGBAISHIYINWEIWAIBUSHENFENXINGCHENGDE。

GUIYIN:CONGRENMENXINGDONGDECHENGGUOZHUIQIUXINGDONGDENEIHANNENGYUANSHENFEN

3,ZIWOGONGNENGLUN。YIWEIRENDUIXINGDONGDEJUEYIDASUANSHIZIDONGDE。RENDERENZHIBIANLIANGRUDENGHOU、ZHUZHONGHEPINGGUZAIXINGDONGJUEYIDASUANZHONGQIZHESHOUYAODEGANHUA。CIZHONGDENGHOUSHIJUEYIXINGDONGDEXIANXINGSHENFEN,QIANGHUADECHENGGUOCUNZAIYUDENGHOUKUAJIANGHUOSHANGFADANGZHONG,SHIYIZHONGQIANGHUADENGHOUFENWEICHENGGUODENGHOUHECHENGGUODENGHOU。CHENGGUODENGHOUSHIZHIGEBIEDUIBENSHENXINGDONGCHENGGUODEGULIANG;CHENGGUODENGHOUSHIZHIGEBIEDUIBENSHENSHIBUSHIYOUNENGLILAIWANCHENGMOUZHONGXINGDONGDECAICEHEPANDING,ZHEILEICAICEHEPANDINGBIANSHIGEBIEDEZIWOXIAOLIGAN。

4,CHENGJIUFANGZHENSHIJI。CHABIEGEBIEDUIBENSHENDENENGLIYOUCHABIEDEGUANDIAN。ZHEILEIDUINENGLIDEQIANFUSHUXIHUIJIANJIEYINGXIANGDAOGEBIEDUICHENGJIUFANGZHENDETIAOXUAN。

PINGGUGUIFANHEZHUNSHENG:①SHIMINGGUIFAN;②ZIWOGUIFAN;③BIERENGUIFANFANGZHENDEFENLEI:BAWOFANGZHEN——DINGWEIZAIBAWOCHANGSHIHEQIANJINNENGLISHANG。GUIFANYONG①②;CHENGJIUFANGZHEN——HAOMINGCI、HAOCHENGJIU。GUIFANYONG③

(ER)XUYAO

1.XUYAODEJIYI

XUYAO-SHIWUJITIWAIBUDEYIZHONGBUJUNHENGZHUANGKUANG,TABIAOCIKEWUJITIDUIWAIBUQINGKUANGHUOWAIBUHUKOUQIANTIDEYIZHONGBUBIANDEQINGQIU,BINGCHENGWEIWUJITIGOUDANGDEYUANQUAN。XUYAOQUDEZHIZUHOU,ZHEILEIBUJUNHENGZHUANGKUANGLINSHIQUDEXIAOMI,DANGCHENGXIANXINDEBUJUNHENGSHI,XINDEXUYAOYOUHUIFASHENG。

2.XUYAODEPINZHONG

ANFAYUANFENKEFENWEITIANRANXUYAOHESHEHUIXUYAO:

TIANRANXUYAO:YECHENGSHENGWUXUEXUYAO,CILEIXUYAOYOUWUJITIWAIBUMOUXIEXINSIDEBUJUNHENGZHUANGKUANGYINFA,DUIWUJITIBAOCHIXINGMING、YANXUERNVYOUSHOUYAOYISI(DUIBIXINGANXINGNIANTOUDEGUANDIANKAN——ZHU)

SHEHUIXUYAO:RENLEIDUYOUDEXUYAO,FANYINGLERENLEISHEHUIDEQINGQIU,DUIBAOCHIRENLEISHEHUIHUKOU、BIANCESHEHUIQIANJINYOUSHOUYAOGANHUA

ANZHIXIANGDEDONGXIKEFENWEIWUZIXUYAOHEJINGLIXUYAO:

WUZIXUYAO:ZHIXIANGSHEHUIWUZICHANWUDEXUYAO

JINGLIXUYAO:ZHIXIANGSHEHUIJINGLICHANWUDEXUYAO

※3.XUYAODETIAOLISHIJI

MASILUOYIWEIRENDEXUYAOYOUYIXIAWUGEPINJIZUCHENG:

1,XINSIDEXUYAO。 2,NINGJINGDEXUYAO。 3,GUISHUHEAIDEXUYAO。 4,ZUNJINGDEXUYAO。 5,ZIWOWANCHENGDEXUYAO。

马斯洛以为这五种须要都是人的根基的须要。这些须要都是生成的、与生俱来的,它们组成差别的品级或程度,并成为鼓励和指引个别行动的气力。并且须要的条理越低,它的气力越强,潜力越大。跟着须要条理的回升,须要的气力响应削弱。在高档须要呈现之前,必须先知足初级须要。

MIANZESHENMING:BENZHANSUOGONGYINGDENEIRONGJUNLAILIYUWANGYOUGONGYINGHUOSHOUJIHUIJI,YOUBENZHANBIANJIQINGSUAN,JINGONGXIAOWOYANTAO、JIAOHUANJINXIULIYONG,BUCHUJIMAOYIHONGLIMUBIAO。RUCHUJIBANQUANTIMU,QINGJIEQIABENZHANBANLIYUANYUYIBIANDONGHUOSHANCHU。

【YIWUBIANJI:ZHANGMENGJUN】

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